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AAA London South Bank University

  • AR/1
  • Corporate body
  • 1892-present

London South Bank University was established as the Borough Polytechnic Institute in 1892. In 1883 a local solicitor, Edric Bayley, heard that the government's Charity Commissioners had been given powers to redistribute redundant money from City of London parishes to improve the physical and moral condition of poor Londoners. This led him to set up the South London Polytechnic Institutes Council in 1887, whose members included the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Lord Mayor of London. With Evan Spicer as its Chairman and the Prince of Wales as its President, the Council on the 16th January 1888 petitioned the Charity Commissioners for money. The petition was successful and the Charity Commissioners pledged funds to match any money up to £150,000 raised by the public to establish three polytechnics in South London. As a result a committee of the Council, the South London Polytechnic Institutes Committee, was appointed to raise the funds, select sites and make plans for the three polytechnics, chosen to be located at Elephant and Castle, New Cross and Battersea. After a public appeal by the Committee at Mansion House in June 1888, £78,000 was raised in four years to set up the Battersea and Borough Polytechnics. Also by 1892 the Borough Polytechnic's Governing Body had been set up and the British & Foreign Schools Society's, Borough Road Training College had been bought to house the Polytechnic.

The stated aims of the Charity Commissioners' Scheme for the Borough Polytechnic were 'the promotion of the industrial skill, general knowledge, health and wellbeing of young men and women belonging to the poorer classes' (LSBU/1/9/3). It was officially opened on 30 September 1892 by Lord Rosebery the Foreign Secretary. The first Chair of the Board of Governors was Edric Bayley, the first principal was Charles Millis and the Secretary and Clerk to the Board of Governors was William Richardson. From 1893 the Polytechnic received grants from the Technical Education Board (TEB) of the London County Council. And the London Polytechnic Council (LPC) was established to inspect and co-ordinate the work of the polytechnics. Both the TEB and the LPC were abolished following the London Education Act in 1904, when the London County Council took over responsibility for education in London.

From its inception, the Polytechnic focused on teaching skills relevant to industry and the workplace. The first 'Technical and Trade' classes were offered to apprentices or tradesmen and included woodcarving, boot and shoe manufacture, typography, oils and colours and varnishes. Women could attend classes in laundry, needlework and dressmaking. Science classes comprised chemistry, building construction and drawing, machine construction and drawing and hygiene and music courses, art and design, commercial classes and elocution were also offered in the early years, though most emphasis was placed on the trade classes. Bakery classes began in 1894 and by 1898 comprised the largest group of students at the Polytechnic. In 1899 the National School of Bakery and Confectionery (now the National Bakery School) was opened. In 1898 the Polytechnic introduced its own diplomas, though in 1921 the Ordinary National Certificate (ONC) and Higher National Certificate (HNC) were introduced.

From 1894 the Polytechnic established three Junior Technical Schools, partly in order to justify the employment of full-time staff: many rooms were unoccupied during the day as much of the teaching and activities took place in the evenings. The junior school also had the advantage of producing students able to take up the polytechnic's adult courses. The first school was the Domestic Economy School for Girls in 1894, followed by the Technical Day School for Boys in 1897 and the Day Trade School of Waistcoat-making for Girls in 1904. The schools, for boys and girls aged 12 years and above, taught practical skills for the home and the future workplace.

The governors of the Polytechnic sought to integrate their work with that of neighbouring institutions, in particular Herold's Institute, the London Technical School of Leather Manufacture and the Norwood Technical Institute. In 1907 some work was transferred to Morley College in an attempt to rationalise technical education in London, and a Joint Committee established (see LSBU/3/10/5). In 1917 commercial classes and some language work also transferred to Morley.

During the 1920s diplomas and certificate work for structured courses were introduced, pioneered by the Borough Polytechnic and soon after introduced at other polytechnics as part of a national system. Courses evolved over time and were continually adapted to the vocational needs of students. Single courses were divided into elementary and advanced parts, preliminary and ancillary courses were added, such as mathematics or basic science, and gradually the course grew until it became suitable for examination under the National Certificate or some other scheme. This led to a considerable amount of specialisation in course content and level.

During the Second World War, the polytechnic was bombed with more than 13,000 square feet of the buildings destroyed or made unsafe. New courses were introduced during the war, notably accelerated Higher National Certificate engineering courses under the Hankey scheme by Lord Hankey, Chairman of the War Cabinet's Scientific and Engineering Advisory Committee, and two-year engineering courses were developed for the army. At the end of the war degree courses in Pure Science and Engineering were introduced, which the polytechnic decided to concentrate on. Some courses were discontinued, such as welding, metal plate work and paper technology. Scientists were recruited from the services and war industries and accommodation and equipment required for degree standard work was developed. Due to the 1944 Education Act the junior schools were separated from the Polytechnic after the war. Degree courses were offered in the late 1940s and in 1955 the National Council for Technological Awards (NCTA) began awarding Diplomas of Technology and Technology Engineering. The diploma was the first major award of first degree standing for technical colleges and was quickly adopted by the Polytechnic's different departments. Further education and training was reorganised following the White Paper on Technical Education in 1956. The variety of levels of work at the Polytechnic meant that it was designated a regional college rather than a college of advanced technology, after which the governors decided to reduce the proportion of lower level work. The NCTA was replaced in 1964 by the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) and the South Bank Academic Board established. There was a large increase in full-time and sandwich courses in diploma, CNAA and external degree courses.

The publication of the White Paper 'A Plan for Polytechnics and Other Colleges', published in 1966, had announced the creation of some 30 polytechnics throughout the country to form what became called the public sector of the binary system of higher education. The 13 existing colleges managed by the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) were to be reorganised into five. The Borough Polytechnic Institute, the Brixton School of Building, City of Westminster College and the National College for Heating, Ventilating, Refrigeration and Fan Engineering joined together to become the Polytechnic of the South Bank in 1970.

First degree courses were the mainstay of the new polytechnic's activities, and by the mid-1970s departments were offering full-time or sandwich courses and part-time courses in each major discipline. There was a rise in full-time and sandwich education leading to diplomas, CNAA and external degree awards. CNAA honours degrees in several subjects replaced London external degrees and CNAA ordinary degree, and new awards were introduced. The polytechnic expanded its range of courses into new areas of work, including sociology, town planning, management, education and law, in an environment where science and engineering had been dominant. Courses such as dental technology and building crafts were also transferred in order to rationalise work at the Polytechnic. Engineering and science courses continued to be central, with electrical and mechanical engineering and chemical engineering particularly growing in importance. Postgraduate work increased during the 1970s and 1980s, with 16% of students studying on postgraduate courses by 1990. In 1976 Battersea College of Education was incorporated into the Polytechnic, as were the parts of the Rachel McMillan College of Education that provided courses at the New Kent Road annexe. During the 1980s the Polytechnic pioneered the provision of access courses, including one in legal studies, for part-time and mature students. A new Department of Hospitality, Food and Product Management provided a new range of courses, including hotel management and in 1988 the Polytechnic was accredited for first degrees by CNAA. In 1991 students from South West London College transferred to South Bank on the dissolution of the College, and the Central Catering College was also incorporated into the Polytechnic.

In 1987 the Polytechnic became known as South Bank Polytechnic, and as result of the 1988 Education Reform Act was awarded corporate status and became independent of local authority control. Funding of polytechnics was given over to a new body, the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council (PCFC), which was itself replaced in 1992 when the Higher and Further Education Act created a single Higher Education Funding Council, removing any remaining distinctions between polytechnics and universities. As a consequence South Bank Polytechnic became South Bank University on 18 June 1992 with the power to award its own degrees.

South Bank University consolidated and developed course specialities in computing, engineering, applied science; architecture, construction and estate management, business studies, management, languages and law, social sciences, arts, media studies and a new programme of Combined Honours degree subjects. In 1995 Redwood College of Health Studies and Charles West School of Nursing were incorporated into the University, bringing a number of health courses including nursing and allied health professions.

In 2003 the University underwent another name change to London South Bank University and teaching was split into four faculties: Arts and Human Sciences (AHS), Business, Computing & Information Management (BCIM) (from 2009 Business), Engineering, Science & the Built Environment (ESBE) and Health and Social Care (HSC).

AAA Polytechnic of the South Bank

  • Corporate body
  • 1970-1987

In 1970 the Borough Polytechnic Institute merged with the Brixton School of Building, City of Westminster College and National College for Heating, Ventilating, Refrigeration and Fan Engineering to form the Polytechnic of the South Bank. The Designation Ceremony took place at the Royal Festival Hall on the South Bank on 22nd November 1971. Margaret Thatcher, the Education Secretary at the time was the special guest.

AAA South Bank Polytechnic

  • Corporate body
  • 1987-1992

As a result of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992 thirty-five polytechnics were permitted to become universities. South Bank Polytechnic was one such institution and as a result was redesignated South Bank University.

Academic Board

  • Corporate body
  • 1964-

The Academic Board held its first meeting on 2nd November 1964, following the establishment of the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) in the same year. The Academic Board succeeded the Board of Studies (LSBU/3/9) and the Educational Committee, (LSBU/3/3) which was established in 1892.

Its original terms of reference were the raising and maintaining of academic standards, contributing to the academic aspect of the Polytechnic's future development and considering the recommendations of the Boards of Studies. The large body, composed mainly of elected and ex-officio members of staff, sometimes working through subcommittees, widened its work from new courses and syllabuses for the CNAA to administrative and academic problems of all kinds. Over the years the Board grew in influence, spreading the responsibility for institutional academic development and standards amongst a group of staff much wider than had ever previously been the case. The Academic Planning Committee was replaced with committees for strategic planning and academic management.

The current Academic Board is accountable to the Board of Governors for the academic activities of the University. It also creates and maintains connections with industry, advises and supports the University's relationship with its UK and international partners and advises on the instruction of fellowships, scholarships, prizes and other aids towards study and research.

Academic Standards Committee

  • Corporate body

The Academic Standards Committee was established in 1988 with the primary purpose of validating, evaluating and monitoring courses. It also discussed awards and assessment, admissions and recruitment, staff development and research and student support services.

Academic Structure Committee

  • Corporate body
  • 1972-1973

The Academic Structure Committee was Chaired by the Polytechnic's Director and established in 1972. The Committee met 28 times, received and circulated a number of topic papers, considered 67 submissions by individuals or groups and met 25 members of staff. Its careful recommendations, set out in the reports, advocated a departmental structure as against the then fashionable course-school matrix, to consist of 19 departments, reasonably uniform in size, in six faculties. Major resource responsibilities were to be at faculty level with four 'development areas' identified in Law, Education and Psychology, Applied Social Science and Humanities.

Despite widespread consultation, the proposals in the first report were savaged. The Committee withdrew its proposals and its second report in November 1973, after 30 more meetings, met with indifference rather than hostility, and seemed likely to be adopted however administrative support could not be gained and the proposals misfired. Modest changes were later implemented with minimum change to the existing departments, with the establishment of four faculties in 1973-74, which were Administrative Studies, Built Environment, Human Studies & Education and Science & Engineering.

Advisory Committees

  • Corporate body

The Advisory Committees consisted of practical tradesmen and women who provided practical and specialist knowledge to teachers and assisted in finding employment for students at the end of their courses.

Appointments Committee

  • Corporate body

The Appointments Committee was established in December 1990 and exists to consider and ratify recommendations from the Nominations Committee to appoint people to sit on the Board of Governors. It is a committee of the Board of Governors.

Audit Committee

  • Corporate body

The Audit Committee oversees the University's audit activities including auditing the financial statements, appointing the internal and external auditors and advising the Board of Governors on the effectiveness of the internal control system. It is a committee of the Board of Governors.

Barking Hospital

  • AR/37
  • Corporate body
  • 1893-present

From Lost Hospitals of London: In the early 1890s Barking Urban District Council built an infectious diseases hospital on Upney Lane, to the west of Rookery Hall. The Upney Isolation Hospital opened in 1893, dealing with those suffering from scarlet fever, diphtheria and other infectious diseases (but not smallpox). In July and August 1896 some 13 patients were admitted to the Hospital following an outbreak of typhoid fever which affected 23 people in the region. In the early part of the 20th century the Council acquired more land nearby and the Hospital was extended, with the addition of a new ward block at the southwest part of the site. By the mid 1930s Barking Corporation had acquired the rest of the land bordering Upney Lane to Upney station, and a new isolation hospital was built on Upney Meadow to the south of the original building, parallel to the railway line. In 1936, a maternity pavilion was built on the site of the original isolation hospital in response to the need for more maternity beds (the nearby Becontree Estate had a birthrate which was double the national average). The Hospital now comprised two parts on the 18 acre site - at the southern part was the Upney (Isolation) Hospital with 108 beds and, at the northern, the Upney (Maternity) Hospital with 22 beds. In 1938 an ENT Department was established, dealing mainly with the removal of tonsils and adenoids. During WW2 the Upney (Maternity) Hospital became a principal casualty hospital for the Emergency Medical Service. It had 24 beds. Both Hospitals joined the NHS in 1948 as a maternity hospital under the name of Barking Hospital, under the control of the Ilford and Barking Group Hospital Management Committee, part of the North East Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board. The Hospital had 108 beds, which had been reduced to 74 by 1951. By 1954 the Hospital had 76 beds - 54 for maternity patients and 22 for chronically sick elderly females - in the former isolation section at the south, whilst the northern building became the Out-Patients Department, also housing the Borough Chest Clinic and Physiotherapy Department. At the end of the 1950s, because of the shortage of beds, the Hospital Management Committee decided it should become a general hospital for the group. The site was to be redeveloped, as the scattered bungalow buildings used for fever patients were no longer suitable as ward accommodation. The work was to commence in 1963 and be completed by 1967. In the meantime upgrading works were carried out on the existing facilities. In January 1958 the lighting on the labour ward was improved with the installation of mobile operating lamps. The operating theatre was modernised and re-equipped for £5,000. The 4-bedded wards in both maternity units were cubicled and curtained. Glass partitioning for weather protection was erected on the verandah of Sydenham Ward (the antenatal and gynaecological ward), which had the only verandah that had remained open to all the elements. All the woollen blankets on the wards were replaced by cellular cotton blankets (which were boilable). In 1958 work began to convert Ross Ward into an up-to-date surgical ward with 16 beds, at a cost of £9,000. Je er Ward, the medical ward, was to be modernised and become a geriatric ward. The mortuary remained a problem. Post-mortems were carried out in the same room where corpses rested; relatives were only allowed to see the deceased through a window, as the body lay on a slab beside the post-mortem table. nIn May 1959 the renewed Ross Ward opened - the Hospital's first modern ward - for surgical and gynaecological patients. The Hospital then had 98 beds, used variously for maternity, surgical, gynaecological and chronic cases. In addition, there were 4 cots for premature babies. Although some 90% of nurses were non-resident, it was recognised that there was a need for a Recreation Hall; the Hospital's League of Friends raised some £25,000 towards the cost of this project. The Hall was built at the far southeastern part of the site. The Out-Patients building - the Upney Clinic - now also accommodated an orthopaedic clinic. By 1960 the Hospital admitted mainly female patients. Plans were prepared for the expansion of the Hospital from its current 102 beds to 250 general beds by the erection of a 4-storey block at a cost of £1m. In the meantime, improvements to the existing wards continued. Stainless steel sinks were provided on all wards and in the main kitchen. The verandah to Je er Ward, now the female geriatric ward, was made into a pleasant sitting room and fitted with Venetian blinds. During the 1950s a severe shortage of nursing staff, especially midwives, meant that some beds had had to be closed but, in June 1960, deliveries resumed in Harvey Ward, relieving the pressure on Williams Ward, the main maternity ward. A Special Baby Care Unit for premature babies opened in Williams Ward (babies were also accepted from other hospitals). The need for a Leg Unit had been recognised, and this opened in April 1961 in Paget Ward. The 15-bedded unit had cost £5,500. Patients were seen in the Out-Patients Department at King George Hospital, Ilford, and operated on at Barking Hospital. A special X-ray service was supplied by Chadwell Heath Hospital. In 1965 the Hospital had 110 beds for mainly female patients. The new £1m building, built just to the north of the existing ward buildings, was officially opened by Princess Alexandra in April 1967. In 1970 the Hospital had 286 beds for mainly acute and maternity cases. Following a major reorganisation of the NHS in 1974, the Hospital came under the control of the East Roding District Health Authority, part of the North East Thames Regional Health Authority. The Hospital was rebuilt during the 1980s and, in 1987, a new maternity wing was opened, built on the site of the old Out-Patients building. The Hospital then had 314 beds for mainly acute and maternity patients. In 1990 the Hospital was under the control of Redbridge District Health Authority and had 362 beds for acute and maternity cases. In 1993 it came under the Redbridge Health Care Trust, when it had 254 beds for acute care and rehabilitation. By 1995 it had 96 beds for acute care and geriatric patients. In 1999, most of the site was sold off to Wilcon Homes for housing development, and a small part to Hanover Housing for apartments with associated care facilities for elderly people. In 2000 the Hospital had 96 beds, but only three of its four wards were operational as services began to be run down. In 2003 it came under the control of the Barking, Havering and Redbridge Hospitals NHS Trust; there were notionally 105 beds. In 2007 medical and surgical in-patient services moved to King George Hospital in Barley Lane, while mental health in-patients were transferred to Grays Court, an intermediate care centre in Dagenham.n

Battersea College of Education

  • AR/7
  • Corporate body
  • 1894-1976

Battersea College of Education began life in 1894 as the Battersea Training School of Domestic Economy which formed part of the Women's Studies' Department of Battersea Polytechnic Institute. Eleven full time students started their course in 1894 after a special grant had been given to Battersea Polytechnic by the London County Council to open a teacher training school in domestic economy and in 1895 Battersea was officially recognised as a teachers' training school by the Board of Education. New accommodation was opened in 1903 and in January 1911 the first hall of residence was opened, with further halls provided in 1914.

On 1st August 1948 the LCC took over management of the Department from Battersea Polytechnic and re-designated it Battersea College of Domestic Science. In 1949 the Department moved from the Polytechnic to the Manor House on Clapham Common Northside. A programme of building was undertaken, including a new science block which opened in 1954, and further buildings opening in 1960 and 1968. The College acquired a new site, Manresa House in Roehampton, in September 1962, which became the Battersea Training College for Primary Teachers, providing day courses for men and women, which first began on 30th April 1963.

On 1st April 1965 responsibility for the college was transferred from the LCC to the newly established Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and became known as the Battersea College of Education. The College became a constituent college of the University of London Institute of Education, with courses leading to a Teachers' Certificate with special reference to domestic subjects and Department of Education and Science recognition of Qualified Teacher Status.

Following the Government's White Paper "A Framework for Expansion" in 1973, the College merged with the Polytechnic of the South Bank in 1976. Manresa House was closed in 1979, and primary education students were transferred to Rachel McMillan College, an annexe of which would also come to merge with the Polytechnic. Home Economics students remained at Manor House until the early 1980s when students were transferred to the Polytechnic's Southwark campus.

Battersea Polytechnic Institute

  • Corporate body
  • 1891-1956

Battersea Polytechnic was founded in 1891 and was based on Battersea Park Road. In 1956 it became Battersea College of Technology and in 1965 obtained land in Guildford for a new campus. In 1966 the college became the University of Surrey and the move to Guildford was completed in 1970.
The original Battersea College of Education was a department of the Battersea Polytechnic and called the Battersea Training School of Domestic Economy and as such appears in the Battersea Polytechnic reports.

Blackwells building

  • Corporate body

Blackwells Bookshop was situated at 119 London Road. The first floor contained office space for London South Bank University staff.

Board of Directors

  • Corporate body

The Board of Directors is more commonly known as the Board of Governors. For a time they were known as the Board of Directors when organising and holding the Annual General Meetings but those present still attended as members of the Board of Governors, rather than as Directors.

Board of Governors

  • Corporate body
  • 1891-

The first meeting of the Governing Body was held on 23 October 1891 at the offices of the London School Board. It was originally made up of 12 members:

5 members nominated by the Committee of the South London Polytechnic Institutes;
3 members nominated by the Central Governing Body of the City Parochial Foundation;
2 members nominated by the London County Council;
2 members nominated by the School Board of London.

The Chair of the first meeting was Sir Philip Magnus. The Chair was shared between Sir Philip Magnus, Evan Spicer and Edric Bayley until Edric Bayley was chosen as the permanent Chair at the meeting of 18 February 1892.

At its meeting of 31 March 1892 the Governing Body appointed three committees of seven members each. A Finance Committee, Educational Committee and Recreational Committee. The Educational and Recreation Committee sat together as the General Purposes Committee. The General Purposes Committee advised on the classes to be provided and the teaching staff.

With the formation of the Polytechnic of the South Bank a Council of Governors was created, whose first meeting was held on 24 September 1970, with Harold Shearman as Chairman. The last meeting of the Governing Body of the Borough Polytechnic was held on 12 November 1970.

This became the Board of Governors in 1989.

Board of Governors, National College

  • Corporate body

The Board of Governors was constituted by the Minister of Education to 'establish a Foundation with the principal object of maintaining a College for providing technical education and research in connection with heating, ventilating, refrigeration and fan engineering' (Declaration of Trust, NC/1/4). The original Board of Governors, appointed by the Minister of Education, had representation from the three industries, the Governors of the Borough Polytechnic and other interests as follows:

Four nominated by the Association of Heating, Ventilating and Domestic Engineering Employers;

Two by the British Refrigeration Association;

Two by the Institute of Refrigeration;

Four by the Fan Manufacturers' Association, Ltd.;

One by the National Union of Operative Heating and Domestic Engineers and General Metalworkers;

Two by the Trades Union Congress;

Four by the Governing Body of the Borough Polytechnic;

Two by London County Council as Local Education Authority;

One by the University of London; and

One by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.

The first chairman of the Governors was Hubert A. Secretan, future Chair of the Governors of the Borough Polytechnic. He was replaced in 1962 by John W. Cooling, one of the founding governors, who remained chairman until 1970.

The Board of Governors, in co-operation with the Governing Body of the Borough Polytechnic, were responsible of the development of the work of the College, including the selection and admission of students, maintenance of buildings and equipment, organisation, staffing and general administration. It had the right to appoint committees and at its first meeting of 20 January 1948 it appointed two committees: the Finance and General Purposes Committee and the Education Committee.

The last meeting of the Board was held on 3 July 1970.

Board of Studies

  • Corporate body
  • 1922-1964

The Board was established in October 1922 with the remit to report to the Educational Committee. It consisted of teaching staff. The Board, along with the Educational Committee was superseded by the Academic Board.

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